Consejos De Supervivencia/Survival Tips: Penicillium Chrysogenum

Consejos De Supervivencia/Survival Tips: Penicillium Chrysogenum

Un tema verdaderamente importante! Todos los comentarios sobre este tema son bienvenidos! Y, no, no lo he bebido, y no se lo recomiendo a nadie, si no es por necesidad en una situación de supervivencia. Lean también los comentarios de FenlandLady, quien es una ex-fuerzas especiales.
INFORMACIÓN EN WIKIPEDIA: Penicillium chrysogenum1 es el hongo del que se obtuvo el antibiótico penicilina, descubierto por Alexander Fleming en 1928. La utilización de esta sustancia permitió tratar muchas enfermedades que, hasta bien entrado el siglo XX, se consideraban incurables. La penicilina comenzó a utilizarse en forma masiva durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial (1939-1945) cuando se hizo evidente su valor terapéutico. La cepa de Penicillium notatum aislada por Fleming producía 2 mg de penicilina por cada litro de cultivo, posteriormente se encontró que otros Penicillium eran mejores productores de penicilina y se eligió a Penicillium chrysogenum como cepa superproductora de este antibiótico. Finalmente, la selección de sucesivos mutantes superproductores y la mejora en las técnicas de fermentación realizadas por la industria biotecnológica han hecho que actualmente se obtengan 60 g/L de penicilina.

A very important subject indeed! Any comments on this issue are welcome! And no, I didn´t drink it, and I don´t recommend it to anyone, unless utmost necessary, i.e. survival situation. Also read the comments of FenlandLady, who is ex-special forces.
SOURCE, WIKIPEDIA: The discovery of penicillin ushered in a new age of antibiotics derived from microorganisms. Penicillin is an antibiotic isolated from growing Penicillium mold in a fermenter. The mold is grown in a liquid culture containing sugar and other nutrients including a source of nitrogen. As the mold grows, the sugar is used up and starts to make penicillin only after using up most of the nutrients for growth.

Penicillin was discovered in 1928 when Alexander Fleming’s lab assistant accidentally left a window open overnight and mold spores covered his Staphylococcus bacterial specimens in a Petri dish.[8][9] At first, Fleming was very irritated at the contamination, but, as he was about to throw the specimens away, he noticed something interesting. He looked under the microscope at the bacteria surrounding the blue-green mold and noticed that many were dead or dying. This later turned out to have been due to the mold’s prevention of the bacteria from making new cell walls and reproducing. He identified the mold as Penicillium notatum, which releases the antibiotic penicillin G into the medium (his identification has been subsequently shown to be incorrect: the fungal species was actually the related Penicillium rubens).[10] After this, he did some testing on humans and animals and discovered that not only did it kill bacteria but it was suitable for use as a medication in humans and animals. However, the discovery did not attract much attention until the 1940s, when Howard Florey, Norman Heatley, and Ernst Chain developed methods for mass production and application in humans, incited by the urgent wartime need for antibacterial agents. The work of A. J. Moyer was important in these early developments.

At this point, though the drug had shown success in treating numerous bacterial diseases, it was still so difficult to produce and so dilute that it was not feasible to produce quantities large enough for mass production, and so an effort was begun to find a strain of Penicillium with a higher rate of production of penicillin. Army pilots sent back soil from around the world to be tested for the right kind of mold.[citation needed] Even the people of Peoria, Illinois were told to bring in any molds that they found around their homes.[citation needed] It has also been said[where?] that the scientists working on this project kept an eye out for similar-looking molds while grocery shopping or when they were cleaning around the kitchen especially their refrigerators.[citation needed]

It was by these means that Penicillium chrysogenum was discovered, on a cantaloupe from a grocery store in Peoria, Illinois.[11] The fungus isolated from this cantaloupe produced several hundred times as much penicillin as Fleming’s original cultures. Subcultures of this fungus were then irradiated with X-rays and UV rays in an attempt to cause a mutation in the fungus that would lead to an increase in penicillin yield. The effort was successful, and a mutant strain that yielded more than a thousand times the penicillin of Fleming’s original culture was produced and cultured. This discovery, in combination with vastly improved methods of culturing the fungus based on the principle of aerating the culture medium, resulted in the ability to mass-produce penicillin in quantities great enough for distribution and mass use in the United States Army, and later within the British armed service and hospitals, in WWII.